MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF METALS AND METAL ALLOYS

Ultimate tensile strength(UTS ), often shortened to tensile strength (TS) or ultimate strength,is the maximum stress that a material can withstand while being stretched or pulled before failing or breaking.

Data charts relating to the Ultimate Tensile strength of various metals and there alloys, includingStructural steels,Free cutting steels,Steels for quenching and tempering,Stainless steels,Cast iron,Spring steels,Bearing steels,Bearing bronze,Unalloyed carbon steels, Stainless steels (RVS)andGrey Cast Iron.

Ultimate Tensile Strength Charts

Standard mechanical properties Re = yield stress, yield strength or yield point, in MPa or N/mm2, corresponding to the end
of the elastic region Rm = ultimate tensile strength, in MPa or N/mm2.

STRUCTURAL STEEL HOT ROLLED, NON ALLOY STEELS
MATERIALRe[MPa]Rm[MPa]
NAMEnr d <16< 40< 63< 80< 100< 3< 100
S235JR1.0038235225215215215360-510360-510
S235JO1.0114235225215215215360-510360-510
S235J21.0117235225215215215 360-510360-510
S275JR1.0044275265255245235430-580410-560
S275JO1.0143275265255 245235430-580410-560
S275J21.0145275265255245235430-580410-560
S355JR1.0045355 345335325315510-680470-630
S355J01.0553355345335325315510-680470-630
S355J2 1.0577355345335325315510-680470-630
S355K21.0596355345335325315510-680470-630
S450J01.0590450430410390380-550-720
E2951.0050295285490-660470-610
E3351.0060335325590-770570-710
E3601.0070360355690-900 670-830

E295...E360: bearing and drive shafts, wear parts in natural hardness.

STRUCTURAL STEEL HOT ROLLED, NON ALLOY, NORMALISED, WELDABLE FINE GRAIN
MATERIALRe[MPa]Rm[MPa]A
NAMEnrd < 16< 40 < 63< 80< 100< 100%
S275N1.0490275265255245235370-51023-24
S275NL1.0491 275265255245235370-51023-24
S355N1.0545355345335325315470-63021-22
S355NL 1.0546355345335325315470-63021-22
S420N1.8902420400390370360520-68018-19
S420NL1.8912420400390370360520-68018-19
S460N1.8901460440430410400540-720 17
S460NL1.8903460440430410400540-72017
STRUCTURAL STEEL THERMO-MECHANICALLY ROLLED, WELDABLE FINE GRAIN
MATERIALRe[MPa]Rm[MPa]A
NAMEnr< 16< 40 < 63< 80< 100< 40< 63< 80< 100%
S275M1.8818275265255245245370-530 360-520350-510350-51024
S275ML1.8819275265255245245370-530360-520350-510350-51024
S355M1.8823355345335325325470-630450-610440-600440-60022
S355ML1.8834355345335 325325470-630450-610440-600440-60022
S420M1.8825420400390380370520-680500-660 480-640470-63019
S420ML1.8836420400390380370520-680500-660480-640470-63019
S460M 1.8827460440430410400540-720530-710510-690500-68017
S460ML1.8838460440430410 400540-720530-710510-690500-68017
FREE CUTTING STEEL NOT INTENDED FOR HEAT TREATMENT
NAMEnrDiam[mm]Hardness[HB]Rm[MPa]
11SMn30
11SMNPb30
11SMn37
11SMnPb37
1.0715
1.0718
1.0736
1.0737
5<10-380-570
10<d<16-380-570
16<d<40112-169380-570
40<d<63109-169 370-570
63<d<100107-154360-520
FREE CUTTING STEEL CASE HARDENING, UNTREATED
NAME nrDiam [mm]Hardness HBRm [MPa]
10S20
10SPb20
1.0721
1.0722
5<10-360-530
10<d<16- 360-530
16<d<40107-156360-530
40<d<63107-156360-530
63<d<100105-146350-490
15SMn13 1.07255<10-430-610
10<d<16-430-600
16<d<40128-178430-600
40<d<63128-172 430-580
6 3<d<100125-160420-540
FREE CUTTING STEEL DIRECT HARDENING
UNTREATEDQUENCHED and TEMPERED
MATERIAL NAMEDiam dHardnessRmReRmA
 nr mmHB[MPa]MPaMPa%min
35S20
35SPb20
1.0726
1.0756
5=d=10-550-720430630-78015
10<d=16-550-700430630-78015
16<d=40154-201520-680380600-75016
40<d=63154-198 520-670320550-70017
63<d=100149-193500-650320550-70017
36SMn14
36SMnPb14
1.0764
1.0765
5=10-580-770480700-85014
10<d=16-580-770460700-85014
16<d=40166-222560-750420 670-82015
40<d=63166-219560-740400640-79016
63<d=100163-219550-740360570-72017
38SMn28
38SMnPb28
1.0760
1.0761
5=10-580-780480700-85015
10<d=16-580-750460700-850 15
16<d=40166-216560-730420700-85015
40<d=63166-216560-730400700-85016
63<d=100 163-207550-700380630-80016
44SMn28
44SMnPb28
1.0762
1.0763
5=10-630-900520700-85016
10<d=16-630-850480700-85016
16<d=40187-242630-820420700-85016
40<d=63184-235 620-790410700-85016
63<d=100181-231610-780400700-85016
46S20
46SPb20
1.0727
1.0757
5=10-590-800490700-85012
10<d=16-590-780490700-85012
16<d=40175-225590-760 430650-80013
40<d=63172-216580-730370630-78014
63<d=100166-211560-710370630-78014
STEELS FOR QUENCHING AND TEMPERING (QUENCHED AND TEMPERED) NON-ALLOY STEEL
d < 16
t = < 8
16 < d = < 40
8 < t = < 20
MATERIAL NAMEReRmAReRmA
 nrMPa MPa%MPaMPa%
C351.0501430630-78017380600-75019
C401.0511460650-800 16400630-78018
C451.0503490700-85014430650-80016
C551.0535550800-95012 490750-90014
C601.0601580850-100011520800-95013
SPECIAL STEELS
C22E 1.1151340500-65020290470-62022
C35E1.1181430630-78017380600-75019
C40E1.1186 460650-80016400630-78018
C45E1.1191490700-85014430650-80016
C50E1.1206 520750-90013460700-85015
C55E1.1203550800-95012490750-90014
C60E1.1221580 850-100011520800-95013
28Mn61.1170590800-95013490700-85015

(Source)

STEELS FOR QUENCHING AND TEMPERING (NORMALISED)
NON-ALLOY QUALITY STEELS
d <16
t =< 16
16 < d = < 100
16 < t = < 100
100 < d = < 250
100 < t = < 250
MATERIAL NAMEReRmAReRmAReRmA
 nrMPaMPa%MPaMPa%MPaMPa %
C351.0501300550182705201924550019
C401.051132058016290 5501726053017
C451.0503340620143055801627556016
C551.0535 370680113306401230062012
C601.0601380710103406701131065011
SPECIAL STEELS
C22E1.11512404302421041025---
C35E1.1181 300550182705201924550019
C40E1.11863205801629055017260530 17
C45E1.1191340620143055801627556016
C50E1.120635565013320 6101429059014
C55E1.1203370680113306401230062012
C60E1.1221 380710103406701131065011
28Mn61.11703456301731060018290590 18
ALLOY STEEL (QUENCHED AND TEMPERED)
d <16
t =<8
16 < d = < 40
8 < t = < 20
MATERIAL NAMEReRmAReRmA
 nrMPaMPa%MPaMPa%
38Cr21.7003550800-95014450700-85015
46Cr21.7006650900-110012550800-95014
34Cr4 1.7033700900-110012590800-95014
34CrS41.7037700900-110012590800-95014
37Cr4 1.7034750950-115011630850-100013
37CrS41.7038750950-115011630850-100013
41Cr4 1.70358001000-120011660900-110012
41CrS41.70398001000-120011660900-110012
25CrMo41.7218700900-110012600800-95014
25CrMoS41.7213700900-110012600800-95014
34CrMo41.72208001000-120011650900-110012
34CrMoS41.72268001000-120011650900-110012
42CrMo41.72259001100-1300107501000-120011
42CrMoS41.72279001100-1300107501000-120011
50CrMo41.72289001100-130097801000-120010
34CrNiMo61.658210001200-140099001100-1300 10
30CrNiMo61.658010501250-1450910501250-14509
35NiCr61.5815740880-108012740880-1080 14
36NICrMo161.677310501250-1450910501250-14509
39NiCrMo31.6510785980-118011735 930-113011
30NiCrMo16-161.67478801080-1230108801080-123010
51CrV41.81599001100-13009800 1000-120010
20MnB51.5530700900-105014600750-90015
30MnB51.5531800950-115013650 800-95013
38MnB51.55329001050- 125012700850-105012
27MnCrB5-21.71828001000-125014 750900-115014
33MnCrB5-21.71858501050 130013800950-120013
39MnCrB5-21.71899001100-1350 128501050-125012

(Source)

STAINLESS STEEL
MATERIAL NAMERmReA
 nrANSIMPaMPa%
X10CrNi18-81.4310301500...740 195...20535...40
X8CrNiS-18-91.4305303500...70019035
X5CrNi18-101.4301304540...75023045
2CrNi19-111.4306304L520...66025045
2CrNi18-91.4307304L520...67022045
X5CrNiMo17-12-21.4401 316540...680195...20535...40
X3CrNiMo17-13-31.4436316550...70024040
X2CrNiMo17-13-21.4404316L520...660 19540
X2CrNiMo18-14-31.4435316L500...70020045
X6CrNiMoTi1712-21.4571316Ti540...68021540
X6CrNiTi18-101.4541321540...68020540
X12Cr131.4006410<60020
X20Cr131.4021420 <70015
X30Cr131.4028420<74015
X6Cr171.4016430440...59025520
X3CrTi17 1.4510439430...63020520
X2CrTiNb1814509441430/63025020
X2CrNiMoN22-5-31.4462duplex640...880 48025

Austenitic 3-series (3.04, 316...) - non-magnetic Ferritic and martensitic 4-series (405, 439...), magnetic,not intended for heath treatment

(Source)

CAST IRON
MATERIAL NAMERmReA E-modulus
 MPaMPa%GPa
EN-GJL-150150...250100...1650.8...0.378...103
EN-GJL-200200...300 130...1950.8...0.388...113
EN-GJL-250250...350165...2300.8...0.3103...118
EN-GJL-300300...400195...2600.8...0.3 108...137
EN-GJS-350-22-LT350...400220...28030...22160...185
EN-GJS-400-18-LT400...450250...30027...18160...185
EN-GJS-400-15400...550250...35027...15160...185
EN-GJS-450-10450...600310...41020...10160...185
EN-GJS-500-7500...650 320...42018...7160...185
EN-GJS-600-3600...750370...4808...3160...185
EN-GJS-700-2700...850420...6006...2 160...185
EN-GJS-800-2800...1000480...7504...2160...185

GJL (old GG), grey cast iron with lamellar graphite - the 250 and 300 are hard wearing. GJS (old GGG), grey cast iron with nodular graphite - high ductility, for heath treatment, from 500 hard wearing

(Source_1,Source_2 ).

SPRING STEEL
MATERIALnrRm [MPa]E [GPa]G [GPa]
Spring steel (Music wire)1.12002220 - 820 log d206815
Stainless steel (ANSI 301)1.43100.85(2220 - 820 log d)19073

The mechanical properties relate to the diameter of the wire. As a rule of thumb Rm=2220 - 820 log d, according EN 10270-1-SH for steel nr. 1.1200. For stainless steel 1.4310 the tensile strength is 15% less, according EN 10270-3-NS. The max bending stress is taken 0.7Rm, the max torsional stress 0.4Rm, when statically loaded. Statically loaded is defined for up to 20 to 50 thousand load cycles. The max stress is taken 40% less when loaded for more than 10 million load cycles.

BEARING STEELS
MATERIAL NAMEUntreatedQuenched and tempered
 nrRm [MPa]Re [MPa]Rm [MPa]Re [MPa]
100Cr21.3501
100Cr61.3505
100CrMn61.3520
16CrNoMo61.3531
19MnCr51.3523
44Cr21.3561

(Source)

BEARING BRONZE
BronzeENReRmHBoil lubricated
CuSn7ZnPb2.1090120270 >70general bearing bronze
Cu Sn122.1052140280>90tin bronze for high load
CuSn12Pb2.1061140280>85 lead bronze, improved slide ability
CuSn12Ni2.1060170300>90with nickel, for worm gears
CuPb15Sn2.1182110220 >65soft, suitable for water lubrication
Shaft-hardness >HB165, shaft material E335, roughness Ra<1µm, pmax<10MPa (<0.2m/s)

(Source)

UN-ALLOYED CARBON STEEL
GRADEUTS [MPa]>0.2% YS [MPa]
ENe3) =16e3) > 16e3) < 3e3) =3
S235JR1.0037235225360 - 510360 - 510
S235J01.0114235225360 - 510360 - 510
S235J21.0116235225360 - 510340 - 470
S275JR1.0044275 265430 - 580410 - 560
S275J01.0143275265430 - 580410 - 560
S275J21.0144275265430 - 580 410 - 560
S355JR1.0045355345510 - 680470 - 630
S355J01.0553355345510 - 680470 - 630
S355J2 1.0570355345510 - 680470 - 630
S355K21.0595355345510 - 680470 - 630
E2951.0050295285 490 - 660470 - 610
E3351.0060335325590 - 770570 - 710
E3601.0070360355690 - 900670 - 830

S235...S355: structural parts, good weld ability and cutting.
E295...E360: drive shafts, wear parts in natural hardness.

STAINLESS STEEL (RVS)
GradeUTS0.2% YS
DINENMPaMPa%
X10CrNi18-81.4310301 500...740195...20535...40
X8CrNiS-18-91.4305303500...70019035
X5CrNi18-101.4301304540...75023045
2CrNi19-111.4306304L520...66025045
2CrNi18-91.4307304L520...67022045
X5CrNiMo17-12-2 1.4401316540...680195...20535...40
X3CrNiMo17-13-31.4436316550...70024040
X2CrNiMo17-13-21.4404316L 520...66019540
X2CrNiMo18-14-31.4435316L500...70020045
X6CrNiMoTi1712-21.4571316Ti540...680215 40
X6CrNiTi18-101.4541321540...68020540
X12Cr131.4006410<60020
X20Cr131.4021 420<70015
X30Cr131.4028420<74015
X6Cr171.4016430440...59025520
X3CrTi171.4510439430...63020520
X2CrTiNb1814509441430/63025020
X2CrNiMoN22-5-31.4462duplex 640...88048025

Austenitic 3-series (3.04, 316...) - non magnetic Ferritic and martensitic 4-series (405, 439...), magnetic,suitable for heath treatment

(Source)

CAST IRON (GREY)
GRADERm0.2% YS E-modulus
MPaMPa%GPa
EN-GJL-150150...250100...1650.8...0.378...103
EN-GJL-200200...300130...195 0.8...0.388...113
EN-GJL-250250...350165...2300.8...0.3103...118
EN-GJL-300300...400195...2600.8...0.3108...137
EN-GJS-350-22-LT350...400220...28030...22160...185
EN-GJS-400-18-LT400...450250...30027...18160...185
EN-GJS-400-15 400...550250...35027...15160...185
EN-GJS-450-10450...600310...41020...10160...185
EN-GJS-500-7500...650320...420 18...7160...185
EN-GJS-600-3600...750370...4808...3160...185
EN-GJS-700-2700...850420...6006...2160...185
EN-GJS-800-2800...1000480...7504...2160...185

GJL (old GG), grey cast iron with lamellar graphite -the 250 and 300 have very good wear resistance. GJS (old GGG), grey cast iron with nodular graphite - high ductility, suitable for heat treatment, from 500 hard wearing, gears

(Source_1,Source_2 ).

MATERIAL PROPERTIES OF FASTENERS
MATERIALRm [MPa]
Austenitic RVS
A1, A2, A3,A4, A5
500 - soft
700 - work hardened
800 - work hardened
Martensitic RVS
C1
500 - soft
700 -
1100
CU1
CU2
CU3
CU4
CU5
CU6
CU7
240
440
440
470
590
440
640

(Source)

RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN SHEAR AND TENSILE STRENGTHS
MATERIALSHEARINGYIELDING
WROUGHT AND ALLOY STEELUST ≈ 0,75 x UTSSSY ≈ 0,58 x YS
DUCTILE IRONUST ≈ 0,90 x UTSSSY ≈ 0,75 x YS
MALLEABLE IRON - PEARLITICUST ≈ 1,0 x UTS-
WROUGHT IRONUST ≈ 0,83 x UTS-
CAST IRONUST ≈ 1,3 x UTS-
COPPER AND ITS ALLOYSUST ≈ 0,65 x UTS-
ALUMINIUM AND ITS ALLOYSUST ≈ 0,65 x UTS SSY ≈ 0,55 x YS
UTSULTIMATE TENSILE STRESS
USTULTIMATE SHEAR STRESS
SSYSHEAR STRESS YEILD
YS TENSILE YIELD STRESS