IP RATING SYSTEM

Charts and Tables explaining theIP Rating Sytem,Code Breakdown,Solid Particle Protection,Liquid Ingress Protection, Additional Letters Coding,Mechanical Impact Resistance,IPX Coding,IP69K CodingandNEMA Coding.

IP RATING SYSTEM

EN 60529 outlines an international classification system for the sealing effectiveness of enclosures of electrical equipment against the intrusion into the equipment of foreign bodies (i.e. tools, dust, fingers)and moisture.

This classification system utilizes the letters "IP" ("Ingress Protection") followed by two or three digits. (A third digit is sometimes used.

An "x" is used for one of the digits if there is only one class of protection; i.e. IPX4 which addresses moisture resistance only.)

CODE BREAKDOWN

VIP indicationSolid particle protectionLiquid ingress protectionMechanical impact resistanceOther protections
VIPSingle numeral: 0-6 Single numeral: 0-8Single numeral: 0-9Single letter
MandatoryMandatoryMandatoryNo longer usedOptional

SOLID PARTICLE PROTECTION

The first digit of the IP code indicates the degree that persons are protected against contact with moving parts (other than smooth rotating shafts, etc.) and the degree that equipment is protected against solid foreign bodies intruding into an enclosure.

LevelObject size protected againstEffective against
0-No protection against contact and ingress of objects
1>50mmAny large surface of the body, such as the back of a hand,but no protection against
deliberate contact with a body part
2>12.5mm Fingers or similar objects
3>2.5mmTools, thick wires, etc.
4>1mmMost wires, screws, etc.
5Dust protected Ingress of dust is not entirely prevented, but it must not enter in sufficient quantity
to interfere with the satisfactory operation of the equipment; complete protection against contact
6Dust tight No ingress of dust; complete protection against contact

LIQUID INGRESS PROTECTION

The second digit indicates the degree of protection of the equipment inside the enclosure against the harmful entry of various forms of moisture (e.g. dripping, spraying, submersion, etc.)

Level Protected againstTesting forDetails
0Not protected--
1Dripping waterDripping water (vertically falling drops) shall
have no harmful effect.
Test duration: 10 minutes
Water equivalent to 1mm rainfall per minute
2Dripping water when
tilted up to 15°
Vertically dripping water shall have no harmful effect
when the enclosure is tilted at an angle up to 15°
from its normal position.
Test duration: 10 minutes
Water equivalent to 3mm rainfall per minute
3Spraying water Water falling as a spray at any angle up to 60°
from the vertical shall have no harmful effect.
Test duration: 5 minutes
Water volume: 0.7 litres per minute
Pressure: 80-100 kPa
4 Splashing of waterWater splashing against the enclosure from any direction
shall have no harmful effect.
Test duration: 5 minutes
Water volume: 10 litres per minute
Pressure: 80-100 kPa
5 Water jetsWater projected by a nozzle (6.3mm) against
enclosure from any direction shall have no harmful effects.
Test duration: at least 15 minutes
Water volume: 12.5 litres per minute
Pressure: 30 kPa at distance of 3m
6Powerful water jetsWater projected in powerful jets (12.5mm nozzle) against
the enclosure from any direction shall
have no harmful effects.
Test duration: at least 3 minutes
Water volume: 100 litres per minute
Pressure: 100 kPa at distance of 3m
7Immersion up to 1mIngress of water in harmful quantity shall not be possible when
the enclosureis immersed in water under defined conditions
of pressure and time (up to 1m of submersion).
Test duration: 30 minutes
Immersion at depth of at least 1m measured at
bottom of device, and at least 15cm measured
at top of device
8Immersion beyond 1mThe equipment is suitable for continuous immersionin water
under conditions which shall be specified by the manufacturer.
Normally, this will mean that the equipment is hermetically sealed.
However, with certain types of equipment, it can mean that water
can enter but only in such a manner that it produces
no harmful effects.
Test duration: continuous immersion in water
Depth specified by manufacturer
9kPowerful high temperature
water jets
Protected against close-range high pressure, high
temperature spray downs.
-

ADDITIONAL LETTERS

The standard defines additional letters that can be appended to classify only the level of protection against access to hazardous parts by persons:

Level Protected against access to hazardous parts with
ABack of hand
BFinger
CTool
DWire

Further letters can be appended to provide additional information related to the protection of the device:

LetterMeaning
FOil resistant
H High voltage device
MDevice moving during water test
SDevice standing still during water test
WWeather conditions

MECHANICAL IMPACT RESISTANCE

An additional number has sometimes been used to specify the resistance of equipment to mechanical impact. This mechanical impact is identified by the energy needed to qualify a specified resistance level, which is measured in joules (J). This has now been superseded by the separate IK numberspecified in EN 62262.

Although dropped from the 3rd edition of IEC 60529 onwards, and not present in the EN version, older enclosure specifications will sometimes be seen with an optional third IP digit denoting impact resistance.

Newer products are likely to be given an IK rating instead.

However there is not an exact correspondence of values between the old and new standards.

Dropped IP levelImpact energy Equivalent drop mass and height
0--
10.225J150g dropped from 15cm
20.375J250g dropped from 15cm
30.5J 250g dropped from 20cm
52J500g dropped from 40cm
76J1.5kg dropped from 40cm
920J5.0kg dropped from 40cm
IK numberImpact energy(joules)Equivalent impact
00UnprotectedNo test
010.15 Drop of 200g object from 7.5cm height
020.2Drop of 200g object from 10cm height
030.35Drop of 200g object from 17.5cm height
040.5 Drop of 200g object from 25cm height
050.7Drop of 200g object from 35cm height
061Drop of 500g object from 20cm height
072 Drop of 500g object from 40cm height
085Drop of 1.7kg object from 29.5cm height
0910Drop of 5kg object from 20cm height
1020 Drop of 5kg object from 40cm height

IPX CODING

The letter X is used in any place in the code where specifying a digit is meant to be avoided (or indicates irrelevance based on the common application).

There may be various reasons for choosing this coding variant, such as marketing considerations. Thus, e.g. an IPX7 rating for a consumer device specifies that the device has water protection up to limited immersion, but gives deliberately no information as to whether the device has any protection against mechanical ingress or dust.

In the case of an IPX7 rating, however, a considerable level of protection against the ingress of solids can be assumed,as where a liquid ingress protection rating equals 7, the rating of protection against solids is rarely below 6, e.g. IP67.

Among other common IP ratings using the letter X are IPX4.

IP2X is frequently used on electrical items to specify the item must prevent finger access to live terminals i.e. plug sockets are IP2X.

IP69K

German standard DIN 40050-9 extends the IEC 60529 rating system described above with an IP69K rating for high-pressure, high-temperature wash-down applications.

Such enclosures must not only be dust-tight (IP6X), but it must also able to withstand high-pressure and steam cleaning.

The test specifies a spray nozzle that is fed with 80°C water at 8-10 MPa (80-100 bar) and a flow rate of 14-16 L/min.

The nozzle is held 10-15cm from the tested device at angles of 0°, 30°, 60° and 90° for 30 seconds each. The test device sits on a turntable that rotates once every 12seconds (5rpm).

The IP69K test specification was initially developed for road vehicles, especially those that need regular intensive cleaning (dump trucks, cement mixers, etc.), but it also finds use in other areas (for example, food industry, and car wash centers).

The IP69K rating is the highest protection available.

NEMA RATING

IP CodeMin. NEMA Enclosure rating to satisfy IP Code
IP201
IP543
IP664, 4X
IP676
IP686P

North American enclosure rating systems are defined in NEMA 250, UL 50, UL 508, and CSA C22.2 No. 94.